The Aphorisms of Hippocrates by von Boenninghausen - Book VII

Selected Aphorisms Of Hippocrates
With Comments By Dr. von Boenninghausen

From The Homoeopathic Recorder, Vol. LVIII, No. 10, 11, 12, (April, May, June) 1943.

translated by S.W.S.


APHORISM 1. It is bad when in acute diseases the external parts become cold.

COMMENT: This well known, unfavorable sign may occur in chronic diseases when the exacerbations set in which often are accompanied by internal intense heat and burning. This is a symptom, while it alone does not enable us to select a remedy, yet it is valuable and should not be overlooked. This symptom does not refer to hands and feet alone, but also to the face, ears, nose, chin, etc., even to tongue and eyes. The remedies which here present themselves are: Aconitum, Antimonium tart., Apis, Arnica, Arsenicum, Belladonna, Calcarea carb., Camphora, Carbo vegetabilis, Chamomilla, Cicuta virosa, Cina, Digitalis, Drosera, Hyoscyamus, Ignatia, Iodum, Ipecacuanha, Kali carb., Mezereum, Moschus, Nitric acid, Nux v., Phosphoric acid, Platina, Rhus, Sulphur, and Veratrum. This proves that the serious symptoms can occur in many conditions. But when the properly selected remedy is given, one will see that the case is not hopeless.

APHORISM 2. It is bad when in bone diseases the tissues become livid.

COMMENT: Not only in poorly treated fractures, or in persons who are unhealthy, but also in malignant bone ulcers may we find this livid discoloration of the skin and tissue, which often presages gangrene. Then it is imperative that the here indicated remedy be quickly given, especially: Arsenicum, Asafoetida, Aurum, Conium, Hepar, Lachesis, Mercurius, Silica, or Veratrum, under strict observation of the accompanying symptoms. Then it is possible every time to prevent gangrene, or when gangrene is established, to shed that part and to prevent further spreading. From our journal we could quote several cases where amputation had been decided upon and where thus the involved member was rescued. To save the provider of a poor family is indeed the best recompense for all trouble and diligence, without which no one can attain to a knowledge of remedies, which is necessary to obtain such results.

This livid discoloration of skin and tissue must not be confounded with that which follows contusion of blows, which lasts only a few days, and can be cured quickly by: Arnica, Belladonna, Conium, Lachesis, Pulsatilla, or Sulphuric acid. A livid skin from other causes in affected parts is often a fine indication for the valuable Lachesis.

APHORISM 3. It is a bad symptom when after vomiting the eyes become red, and sobbing sets in.

COMMENT: As far as we know now, we have only one remedy with the symptom "sobbing after vomiting"; Bismuthum. The sobbing of Lachesis after fever has vomiting at the same time, And the sobbing after fever of Arsenicum lacks the vomiting, which occurs only during chills and heat, not during sweat or after fever. In Belladonna, Bryonia, and Ruta we also see sobbing and vomiting, not after, but at the same time, and in Cuprum the vomiting is after sobbing. All these differences belong essentially to the characteristic of each remedy.

Regarding the reddening of the eyes after (or from) vomiting, it is of the same case as with the sobbing, and when this points to: Apis, Arnica, Arsenicum, Bryonia, China, Lycopodium, Nux, Pulsatilla, Sepia, Silica, or Veratrum, that is too uncertain to permit a sure conclusion or a remedy selection.

APHORISM 4. Shivering after sweating is a bad sign.

COMMENT: In this aphorism we meet the same uncertainty as in the previous one. Only few remedies so far as we know have chills following sweat, only Carbo vegetabilis, Hepar, and Nux, and that here is no reference to chills after getting heated with sweat, is self evident. On the other hand, we have a few additional remedies in which these two symptoms, "perspiration and then chills" alternate, and thus repeatedly follow each other: Arsenicum, China, Mezereum, Nux, and Spigelia. If, however, perspiration occurs before the following chill or alternates with it, at the same time as usually accompanied by more or less heat, then we have a considerable list of indicated remedies, and we find this double symptom in high degree in: Aconitum, Ammonium mur., Antimonium tart, Belladonna, Bryonia, Calcarea carb., Cantharis, Capsicum, Causticum, Chamomilla, China, Cina, Clematis, Cocculus, Dros., Graphites, Helleborus, Hepar, Ignatia, Ipecacuanha, Kali carb., Kreosotum, Lachesis, Lycopodium, Mercurius, Moschus, Natrum mur., Opium, Phosphorus, Pulsatilla, Rheum, Rhus, Sabina, Sambucus, Selenium, Sepia, Spigelia, Stramonium, Sulphur, Veratrum, and Agnus castus. Here we have a new reminder as well of the previously mentioned necessity of sharp, unequivocal statement of symptoms, as also of the great amount of possible experience which, in its short existence, Homoeopathy has brought forth as very valuable material for her cures.

APHORISM 7. Rigor and delirium after excessive drinking are bad symptoms.

COMMENT: In this aphorism occur two entirely different actions of intoxication.

In the first instance the intoxicated lies in the state of unconsciousness and is cold all over, like a corpse, in which condition copious splashes with cold water seem the best beginning remedy. But if this is not enough, or brings no lasting result, and especially when the face is red and the eyes staring, Opium, and at times Aconitum and Belladonna must be given. The after effects of intoxication can usually be overcome by Nux v. or Carbo veg.

For the delirium tremens innumerable remedies have been suggested. When the accompanying symptoms have been conquered usually by Opium, Nux vom., Belladonna, Hyoscyamus, or Stramonium and in rare cases by Anacardium, Aurum, or Thuja, then the patient will most likely accept the strict milk diet mentioned in comment to Aphorism 64, Book V, which demands milk instead of any other fluid food. In a few weeks of this regimen liquors are disgusting to the patient, who only then can be considered cured.

APHORISM 9. Delirium and convulsions are a bad sign after bleeding.

COMMENT: Delirium after severe hemorrhages usually demands: Arnica, Arsenicum, Belladonna, Ignatia, Lachesis, Lycopodium , Phosphorus, Phosphoric acid, Sepia, Squilla, Sulphur, or Veratrum; the convulsions point to: Arsenicum, Belladonna, Calcarea carb., Cina, Conium, Ignatia, Lycopodium, Nux v., Pulsatilla, Sulphur, or Veratrum. The choice among these remedies, which are indicated by the anamnesis, self-evidently must be determined by the unchangeable fundamental principles of Homoeopathy. There may be other cases which demand other remedies which correspond more to the symptom totality. Yet such exceptions are rare.

APHORISM 11. Pneumonia following pleurisy is bad.

COMMENT: In pleurisy the following remedies are usually sufficient: Aconitum, Arnica, Bryonia, Kali carb., Phosphorus, Squilla, and Sulphur. But in pneumonia a careful choice must be made among: Aconitum, Antimonium tart., Belladonna, Bryonia, Cannabis, Cantharis, China, Hyoscyamus, Lachesis, Lycopodium, Mercurius, Phosphorus, Pulsatilla, Rhus, Sabina, Senega, Sepia, Squilla, Stramonium, and Sulphur. For stitches in the chest (false pleurisy) think of: Aconitum, Arnica, Bryonia, China, Lachesis, Nux vom., Pulsatilla, Sabadilla, or Sulphur. The carefully selected remedy has often produced such astonishing results, that all physicians were deeply impressed, and they brought many such physicians to an intensive study of our remedies.

APHORISM 12. Encephalitis following pneumonia is bad.

COMMENT: In these days pneumonias, especially those treated by phlebotomy, easily take a typhoid character, while in former times real epidemic meningitis was frequently the end. Even today we see such sporadic cases, and those we saw were usually in the picture of: Aconitum, Belladonna, Bryonia, Cannabis, Cantharis, Hyoscyamus, Lachesis, Mercurius, Rhus, Stramonium, or Sulphur. Strange enough, these remedies (except Cantharis, but with the addition of Arnica) are also indicated as first in typhoid conditions as sequels. From this we learn two valuable lessons for our practice: first that the beginning and course of a disease as well as the anamnesis must be well considered; and, secondly, that the inherent power of a remedy, when it is well freed by potentization, has an action sphere well beyond the pathology forms, but never beyond its true character. One should be very careful not to stretch conclusions or follow them blindly. Generally the correctly chosen remedy will quickly change the disease picture so that a different remedy may become indicated. That is the reason why the thoughtless and incomprehensible repetition of a remedy often does more harm than good, and that frequently the immediate succession of two remedies of similar symptoms, often lack in proper results. This was well known to Hahnemann, for in a consultation case submitted to him, where he compared Nux, Ignatia, Chamomilla, Pulsatilla, and China, he concludes: "Since these remedies apparently are concomitants (except China), and one overcomes the faults of the other (if one does not follow Nux by Ignatia, or Ignatia by Nux immediately, which is not good practice because they are too closely of similar action) you can easily judge which succession you should choose among Ignatia, Pulsatilla, Nux and Chamomilla if not the first one or the next is sufficient. China has little or nothing in its favor in this case, hence should be excluded. For Chamomilla there should be more nocturnal thirst, and more irritability, etc." If Hahnemann at that time had known the high potencies, he would have extended the rule still more and prohibited the repetition, as some of his most distinguished followers did (Stapf and Gross), because the higher potentizing extends the action sphere of the remedies and cures with less doses and in shorter time so that a repetition can find nothing left to cure.

APHORISM 13. It is bad when with acute fever clonic or tonic convulsions occur.

COMMENT: Some commentators have thought this aphorism refers to wounds instead of fever, but we can not take that view. However, this aphorism is backed up in many, if not all, cases by experience. This is clear to a homoeopathist when comparing the remedies with each other, usually employed in such conditions. These are in clonic convulsions especially: Arsenicum, Belladonna, Bryonia, Calcarea carb., Camphora, Carbo vegetabilis, Chamomilla, Cicuta, Dulcamara, Hyoscyamus, Ignatia, Ipecacuanha, Kali carb., Lycopodium, Mercurius, Natrum muriaticum, Opium, Phosphorus, Phosphoric acid, Rhus, Sepia, Silica, Stannum, Stramonium, Sulphur and Veratrum. In tonic convulsions we have especially: Belladonna, Calcarea carb., Camphora, Chamomilla, Cicuta, Cocculus, Hyoscyamus, Ignatia, Ipecacuanha, Kali carb., Lycopodium, Mercurius, Moschus, Natrum mur, Nux, Opium, Petroleum, Phosphorus, Rhus, Sepia, Silica, Stramonium, Sulphur and Veratrum. Among these conditions the most dangerous might be those whose accompanying symptoms indicate: Arsenicum, Belladonna, Camphora, Carbo vegetabilis, Hyoscyamus, Opium, Sepia, Stramonium and Veratrum.

APHORISM 14. Stupor or delirium from a blow on the head is bad.

COMMENT: The chief remedies indicated after a blow on the head, thrust or violent shaking up, especially with reference to the head, are, aside from Arnica also: Cicuta, Conium, Hepar, Lachesis, Pulsatilla, Rhus and Sulphuric acid. But if patient is stunned he may need: Arnica, Cicuta, Conium, Pulsatilla and Rhus. If delirium has set in, then we have in addition: Belladonna, Hyoscyamus, Opium, Stramonium and Veratrum, without overlooking those previously mentioned, and Arnica deserves here also special consideration. It is self-evident that in fractures or splintering, surgical aid must be employed immediately.

APHORISM l5. It is bad when after haemoptysis pus is expectorated.

APHORISM 16. After spitting of pus follow consumption and flux, and when the expectoration is checked, the patient dies.

COMMENT: With few, but strong and true words, Hippocrates sketches the beginning, course and end of the usual phthisis as seen at his time, and also often seen today. It is usually ushered in by a more or less severe harmoptysis, and here we find unusual unity among allopathic physicians [of von Boenninghausen's time], the recommendation of phlebotomy. And here it is where we homoeopathic physicians also are in perfect harmony: we condemn it most severely.

Space does not permit to explain the remedies indicated, because they are so many, and each demands its own indications. We shall only mention some of the most frequently prescribed drugs: Aconitum, Ammonium carb., Arnica, Arsenicum, Belladonna, Bryonia, China, Ferrum, Hyoscyamus, Ipecacuanha, Nitric acid, Phosphorus, Pulsatilla, Rhus, Sabina, Secale, Sulphur, and Sulphuric acid. As in all homoeopathic treatment, here also we must be guided by the consistency of the expectorated pus, the accompanying symptoms, the anamnesis, and the modalities of aggravation and amelioration. In this connection we are sorry that the most reliable haemostatic, Thlaspi bursa pastoris, has not yet been sufficiently proved to enable us always to prescribe it from proper indications.

If the haemoptysis has been only temporarily checked and not really cured, then suppuration and pus expectoration are usually the sequelae. In such conditions Homoeopathy is often unable to do much, especially where deep acting allopathic medicines have been used. There we never can make a favorable prognosis without reservations, not even when danger does not yet seem threatening. The remedies valuable in this stage are: Arsenicum, Bromium, Bryonia, Calcarea carb., Carbo veg., China, Conium, Drosera, Ferrum met., Hepar, Kali carb., Ledum, Lycopodium, Natrum mur., Nitric acid, Phosphorus, Pulsatilla, Rhus, Sambucus, Sepia, Silica, Stannum, and Sulphur. But, as mentioned, the result is and remains uncertain, especially when those indicated remedies are given in large doses, or if frequently changed, or if the secondary action is not given sufficient time. If in any place, then here are speed and rapidity always a disadvantage. It is a matter of course, that in the remedy selection, aside from quantity, time of day when expectoration is easier or more difficult, the character of the same as to color taste, and odor give main moments for remedy choice. But also all concomitant symptoms must be carefully observed, especially since here never a frequent change of remedy is permitted.

But when, as mentioned in the Aphorism, diarrhea and emaciation are added, thus bringing the disease into a further stage, then prognosis and saving the life become more problematic, however not entirely impossible and hopeless. Then one must pay special attention to the character of the stools and the accompanying symptoms in the remedy choice, which falls mainly on: Arsenicum, Bryonia, Carbo veg., China, Ferrum met., Hepar, Nitric acid, Phosphorus, Phosphoric acid, Pulsatilla, and Sulphur. The emaciation as an immediate result will seldom offer anything characteristic, and therefore does not deserve much consideration as indicative. But the more attention we must pay to the often symptom-rich perspiration, and its sharp character as expressed in: Arsenicum, Bryonia, Calcarea carb., Carbo veg., China, Ferrum met., Phosphorus, Phosphoric acid, Sambucus, Sepia, Silica, Stannum, and Sulphur. To quote just one example, it is important to know: does perspiration occur soon in sleep, but leaves quickly (Arsenicum), or does it last all through sleep and stops only upon awakening (Phosphorus), or does it occur only when patient is awake and changes to dry heat as soon as patient drops off to sleep (Sambucus)? By finding and observing such and many other similar characteristic symptoms, which mean nothing to allopathic physicians, we have been able (not infrequently) to save consumptives when all hope had been given up; but that is only possible by giving the correct remedy in the smallest dose, and sufficient time for action, such small doses have almost no perceptible primary action or aggravation, but have a healing sphere, often surprising, exceeding all expectation. From lower potencies we have never seen similar results in desperate cases.

Permit me to once more mention my own person, which I do to honor both Homoeopathy and my dear friend, Dr. Weihe of Herford, in grateful remembrance. He it was, in 1828, when we hardly knew the name of Homoeopathy and had been given up by two prominent allopathic physicians, who cured us of phthisis with copious expectoration, and saved our life by prescribing Pulsatilla 30, and four weeks later one dose of Sulphur 30. Nothing more was necessary as proved by our present vigor and activity, in spite of the fact that my sickness had lasted more than nine months, and I had not been able to take a hundred steps without sufficient rest.

APHORISM 18. Convulsions and delirium after insomnia are a bad sign.

COMMENT: Insomnia can hardly ever be considered sole cause of convulsions and delirium, but all these symptoms belong to the same disease picture totality and must with them correspond to the picture of the selected remedy, without which no remedy could possibly fulfill the demand of the Law of Similars In looking at the here indicated remedies and the accompanying other symptoms, one can easily understand the import of the mentioned diseases. Remedies for convulsions with or after insomnia are principally: Alumina, Belladonna, Bryonia, Calcarea carb., Carbo v., Cuprum, Hepar, Hyoscyamus, Ignatia, Ipecacuanha, Kali carb., Mercurius, Moschus, Nux, Phosphorus, Phosphoric acid, Pulsatilla, Rheum, Rhus, Selenium, Sepia, Silica, Strontium and Thuja. Those remedies which point to delirium and are more or less suited also to insomnia are: Aurum, Belladonna, Bryonia, Calcarea carb., China, Colocynthis, Digitalis, Dulcamara, Hyoscyamus, Ignatia, Lycopodium, Natrum mur, Nux, Opium, Phosphorus, Phosphoric acid, Platina, Pulsatilla, Rhus, Sabadilla, Selenium, Spongia, Stramonium, Sulphur and Veratrum. Every homoeopathic physician who is sufficiently conversant with the special action of our remedies will easily conclude how different the nature of the diseases is; and their degree of danger for which these remedies are indicated. In this our semiotic differs essentially from that of Hippocrates, that with us a single symptom, especially one not completely given with modalities of aggravation and amelioration as to time and condition, and not sharply individualized through accompanying symptoms is insufficient for prognosis and therapy, and that hence our so-called symptomatic treatment is essentially different from that of the allopathic followers of Hippocrates, which prompts them to add another medicine to their mixture for every additional complaint.

APHORISM 19. When a bone is exposed, erysipelas follows.

APHORISM 20. Mortification and suppuration following erysipelas are bad.

COMMENT: Experience teaches the truth of these two aphorisms, not only where such bone exposure has been caused by external traumatism, but also when internal conditions have caused it. A commentator says: "How often we see such wounds change to malignant ulcers by irritating, complicated salves, balsams and tinctures, while they would have been healed under plain dressings and antiphlogistic treatment." Against such accusations of an allopath regarding members of his own guild, we wish to emphasize what we can do with our simple remedies also in bone injuries, especially with: Arnica, Phosphoric acid, Pulsatilla, Symphytum or Ruta. But the condition is much worse when caused from within, and suppuration has set in. In all such cases the basis is a chronic sickness to which our main attention must be directed. Most such afflictions come under the sphere of: Arsenicum, Asafoetida, Aurum, Calcarea carb., China, Conium, Hepar, Lachesis, Lycopodium, Mercurius, Mezereum, Nitric acid, Phosphoric acid, Pulsatilla, Ruta, Sabina, Sepia, Silica, Staphisagria or Sulphur, among which one can usually find the simillimum. External treatment generally does more harm than good here, more so than in the first type which often heal in spite of external medication, but that can never be expected from the internal causes as long as they have not been cured. Even amputation in such cases is futile or only a temporary, one might say deceptive improvement. Many homoeopathists are undoubtedly able to show cases where amputation has been recommended, but where the patient in desperation took refuge in homoeopathy and was cured.

APHORISM 21. If violent throbbing in wounds is followed by hemorrhage it is a bad sign.

COMMENT: Not always does violent throbbing in wounds presage hemorrhage, but usually precedes severe inflammation and suppuration which is best met by: Arsenicum, Hepar, Lachesis, Mercurius or Silica, according to other conditions. Hemorrhage in even small wounds is easily overcome by: Arnica, Carbo veg., Lachesis, Phosphorus, Thlaspi bursa pastoris or Sulphuric acid. But in fungus hamatodes, where often blood flows to exhaustion, even unto death, we have a special, very dangerous sickness, which probably never can be cured without Phosphorus; but with this true polychrest, when properly indicated, a cure fortunately has been obtained, also with the aid of: Arsenicum, Carbo animalis, Silica or a few other indicated remedies as intercurrents.

APHORISM 27. Tenesmus at stool during pregnancy causes miscarriage.

COMMENT: The indicated remedies are: Belladonna, Calcarea carb, Cocculus, Conium, Ipecacuanha, Lycopodium, Mercurius, Nux, Rhus, Sepia and Sulphur, among which it should be easy to find the homoeopathic simillimum, for they should all be well known to homoeopathic physicians through their characteristic peculiarities.

APHORISM 29. When in a case of incipient anasarca violent diarrhea supervenes, it removes the disease.

COMMENT: Copious diarrheas often bring unexpected cures, but at times it accelerates death. Homoeopathists are often consulted when the disease has reached its highest point, and they often find that Digitalis has been given in excessive doses, which paralyzes vital force and makes it impossible for other remedies to act. This as especially true where it has been given antipathically, i. e., where the pulse is fast. In the introduction to Digitalis, Hahnemann wrote (Chronic Diseases): "The true homoeopath will never cause damage with it, but will always use it to the benefit of the patient; he will never give it (as the old school does) where he finds a fast pulse, because in the primary actions of this drug the pulse is retarded very much; hence the secondary action is a very fast pulse, the reaction of the vital force."

Our chief remedies, which we use for the condition of this aphorism, chosen according to accompanying symptoms, are: Antimonium crud, Apis, Arsenicum, Belladonna, Bryonia, China, Colchicum, Digitalis, Dulcamara, Ferrum, Helleborus, Kali carb., Ledum, Lycopodium, Mercur., Phosphorus, Pulsatilla, Rhus, Sabina, Sambucus, Sarsaparilla, Squilla and Sulphur. In dropsy of the lower extremities where water exudes constantly, so that the foot always feels "as in water," there is no remedy as grand as Rhus toxicodendron, which seldom can be superseded by any other drug.

APHORISM 30. Foamy diarrhea causes discharges from the head.

COMMENT: We think Hippocrates here refers to fluid coryza because it is not seldom accompanied by foamy diarrhea. To prove this we remind of the following remedies which have foamy diarrhea: Calcarea carb., Cantharis, Chamomilla, China, Colocynthis, Iodum, Lachesis, Magnesia carb., Mercur., Opium, Rhus, Ruta, Sulphur and Sulphuric acid, and which also have fluid coryza.

APHORISM 31. In febrile diseases a urinary sediment like coarse flour augurs long duration.

APHORISM 32. If urine is thin at first and then becomes bilious, an acute sickness is indicated.

COMMENT: These two aphorisms can not be separated, because one is the opposite of the other, and both have their problems and dark aspect. Aphorism 31 speaks of the flour-like sediment for which so far we have: Antimonium tartaricum, Calcarea carb., China, Graphites, Mercur., Natrum mur., Phosphorus, Phosphoric acid and Sulphur. However, these all correspond to chronic diseases, except China, and accordingly this aphorism so far seems correct. But it seems that in "like coarse flour" are included also the gritty, sandy sediments of white color, and that puts a different face on the matter. From this supposition we are led to still other remedies, which are not indicated in chronic diseases, because they are not of sufficiently deep and sustained action.

In Aphorism 32 we meet a double difficulty. It is not clear what Hippocrates meant by bilious sediment, but we think he referred to some solid matters like mucus, fibers, clouds, etc. However, we do not think either of these aphorisms are of much importance to us.

APHORISM 33. Where urination is interrupted there is a violent disturbance in the body.

COMMENT: The remedies which have this symptom are: Apis, Bovista, Capsicum, Carbo animalis, Causticum, Clematis, Conium, Dulcamara, Kali carb., Ledum, Opium, Phosphoric acid, Pulsatilla, Sulphur, Thuja and Zincum. These represent a considerable number of diseases of which several belong to the malignant group, justifying the final sentence of the aphorism.

APHORISM 34. Foamy urine indicates a chronic disease of the kidneys.

APHORISM 35. When fatty scum is massed together on the urine, it indicates acute kidney disease.

COMMENT: Our provings and experience have taught us that foamy urine is found in: Aurum, China, Kali carb., Lachesis, Laurocerasus, Lycopodium, Senega and Spongia; fatty top is found in: Calcarea carb., China, Colocynthis, Hepar, Iodum, Paris, Phosphorus, Pulsatilla and Sulphur. Of all these remedies we know (with the exception of Aurum, Colocynthis, Laurocerasus, Senega and Spongia) that they act upon the kidneys, and that there are many others having this action sphere, but they do not have the above mentioned symptoms, at least they have not yet been observed in them. It seems therefore that the symptoms mentioned in the aphorisms have been seen in few cases, hence they are not very important. We also have seen foamy or fatty a urine in patients whose kidneys were normal.

APHORISM 36. When these symptoms occur in kidney diseases with acute pain in the superficial muscles of the back, expect an external abscess; if they are felt deeper, expect that the abscess will be internally.

COMMENT: We fail to see how some commentators can call the semiotic of this aphorism "confused, and easily mistaken for psoitis." Of course, it does not happen often that a nephritis runs into external abscess. But it does happen, and we do not hesitate to say that it occurs oftener than we think, and that many abscesses in the lumbar region in reality have that origin. Such external abscesses are sometimes very obstinate, and one obtains results only by using remedies which correspond to the neglected symptoms of the kidney disease. If in any place, then here it is very obvious that we must pay attention to the symptoms, and should carefully study the totality of the characteristic and essential symptoms of the disease picture in order to always select a medicine which is true homoeopathic to the disease. Experience has taught us that many of our remedies indicated in abscess treatment are useless in these cases if they do not have special action on the kidney condition. And again other medicaments which have this sphere of action, but are seldom indicated in abscesses give the finest results. In these conditions we have fared best with: Arsenicum, Cantharis, China, Hepar, Lycopodium, Pulsatilla and Silica. We emphasize that Cantharis, chosen correctly and given in small doses, has top ranking among these remedies.

In cases of internal kidney abscess, especially when chronic and disorganized, it is practically impossible to be of help. Cantharis, Lycopodium and Pulsatilla are then perhaps of some value when chosen correctly as indicated by the symptoms present. If the abscess opens into the abdomen, then a lethal result is usually unavoidable. Hence it is important to cure a nephritis (which is easily recognized by the symptoms) as quickly as possible. Here Cantharis is the main remedy but at times we need also: Aconite, Belladonna, Camphora, Cannabis, Hepar, Mercurius , Nitric acid, Pulsatilla, Squilla, Sulphur or Thuja.

APHORISM 37. Vomiting of blood without fever is not dangerous, but bad when fever is present. Must be treated with cooling and astringent remedies.

COMMENT: Vomiting of blood occurs sometimes without fever in suppressed natural bleeding like menstruation, or where blood from hemorrhoids has stopped. In such cases it becomes necessary to cure the symptoms with suitable remedies corresponding to the symptomatology.

Vomiting of blood with or without fever we find in many remedies, but those most often indicated are: Aconitum, Arnica, Belladonna, Cantharis, Carbo veg., China, Ferrum met., Hyoscyamus, Ipecacuanha, Nux, Phosphorus, Plumbum, Pulsatilla, Sabina, Sepia, Stannum, Sulphur, Sulphuric acid and Veratrum. In such cases it is necessary to note color and consistency of blood. For dark, black blood we have: Aconitum, Cantharis, China, Nux, Pulsatilla, Sepia and Sulphuric acid; light colored blood we find in: Arnica, Belladonna, Carbo veg., Ferrum met., Hyoscyamus, Ipecacuanha, Phosphorus, Plumbum, Sabina and Sulphur. When blood coagulates quickly, or comes away in clots we must think of: Arnica, Belladonna, Cantharis, China, Ferrum met., Hyoscyamus, Ipecacuanha, Nux, Pulsatilla, Sabina and Sulphur. Seldom we meet haematemesis: purplish: Kali carb.; brownish: Bryonia, Carbo veg., Rhus; foamy: Arsenicum, Ledum, Phosphorus, Silica; acrid: Kali carb., Kali nitricum, Silica; stringy: Crocus, Cuprum; or the blood follows after vomiting of mucus or bile: Veratrum. Of course all this must be considered in selecting the remedy, for these conditions are special and characteristic. In all such cases it is not difficult to select the simillimum when also the accompanying symptoms are considered for individualizing according to the tenets of homoeopathy. Thus it never becomes necessary to use astringents, which often are dangerous.

APHORISM 45. Abscess of the liver treated with the knife or cautery, the patient will recover if the pus flows pure and white, for in such cases the abscess is walled in by a membrane, but if it flows thick like oil, then death supervenes.

COMMENT: Though this is a dangerous condition, yet the correct use of: Belladonna, Bryonia, Lachesis, Nux, Pulsatilla, Ruta, Sepia, or Silica hold out some hope and has produced cures in some cases.

APHORISM 49. It is good in throat inflammation when the swelling on the chest is red, for then the disease is being diverted.

COMMENT: In our comments to Aphorism 37, Book VI, we have mentioned croup, so here we shall speak of the homoeopathic treatment of influenza in the throat (angina) according to the symptoms. The usual remedies are: Aconitum, Alumina, Ammonium mur., Apis, Baryta, Belladonna, Bromium, Bryonia, Capsicum, Chamomilla, China, Cocculus, Coffea, Dulcamara, Hepar, Ignatia, Lachesis, Manganum, Mercurius, Nitric acid, Nux, Phosphorus, Pulsatilla, Rhus, Sulphur and Veratrum. It would lead too far, should we speak of the characteristics of each remedy, so we shall just point out one difference which must be observed: the condition of pain upon swallowing. If swallowing relieves the pain, then remember: Alumina, Capsicum, Ignatia, Lachesis, Manganum, Nux, Pulsatilla. More important is the kind of swallowing. Empty swallowing or swallowing of saliva aggravates: Baryta, Belladonna, Bryonia, Cocculus, Hepar, Lachesis, Mercur., Nux, Pulsatilla, Rhus and Sulphur. But if swallowing of food is most painful: Alumina, Ammonium mur., Apis, Baryta, Belladonna, Bromium, Bryonia, Chamomilla, Cocculus, Coffea, Hepar, Lachesis, Mercurius, Nitric acid, Nux, Phosphorus, Rhus and Sulphur. Among these last mentioned for painful swallowing of solid food: Chamomilla, Hepar, Lachesis, Mercur., and Sulphur are the most prominent, while aggravation from swallowing fluid foods or drinks demands: Belladonna, Bromium, Ignatia, Mercur., and Phosphorus. But if swallowing of fluids ameliorates, then choose: Alumina, Nitric acid or Nux; and if ameliorated by swallowing warm fluids, then Alumina and Nux head the list. Closely related to swallowing is speaking, and when that aggravates the pain, then consult: Aconitum, Alumna, Baryta, Bryonia, Dulcamara, Ignatia, Manganum, Mercurius, Phosphorus, Rhus and Sulphur; but in the rare cases where speaking ameliorates Hepar is the only remedy.

All these indications aim only at a single symptom, which alone is insufficient for a remedy choice, only the symptom totality can lead to the curative remedy, i. e., the modalities, sensations, aggravation and amelioration as to time and condition and accompanying symptoms.

APHORISM 50. Patients who suddenly get inflammation of the brain die within three days. If they live past this date, they can recover.

COMMENT: In sunstroke causing meningitic irritation usually a single dose of Belladonna in highest potency is sufficient to allay the symptoms in a few hours as long as they are new. Such patients go to sleep directly after that one dose and awaken without complaints, or, seldom, with light headaches which leaves without any further medication. Rarely, and only when Belladonna is not given at the very beginning, one dose of Nux may be necessary the next day. Even rarer is the condition that after the first dose of Belladonna the symptoms have so changed, that Hyoscyamus is indicated, but it must be followed by another dose of Belladonna. Sunburns of face and hands respond quickest to Camphora, not only the spirits for external application, but at least just as well when given internally in a high potency.

APHORISM 56. Fear, yawning and shivering are overcome by drinking equal parts of wine and water mixed.

COMMENT: It is probable that Hippocrates here refers to hypochondric and hysteric manifestations, and aims at calming . such attacks. This is also seen from the fact that all remedies known to us for which wine is an antidote (Aconitum, Agaricus, Belladonna, Conium, Graphites, Lachesis, Mezereum, Nux, Opium, Phosphorus, Phosphoric acid and Sulphur) with the exception of Agaricus, they all, some particularly so, correspond to hysteria and hypochondriasis, and have been used in such conditions with much success. It goes without saying, that wine here is not to be considered a real and lasting cure.

APHORISM 58. In concussion of the brain, from any cause the power of speech of necessity is lost immediately

COMMENT: This aphorism does not refer to apoplexy, but a only to traumatism. If a cure is still possible, we should study above all Arnica, and only in severe inflammatory states Aconitum, and later Belladonna and Hyoscyamus may come in question. Surgery may be necessary.

APHORISM 59. Florid patients should be starved, for hunger dries the tissues.

COMMENT: While it is evident that patients who are bloated and full-blooded should reduce, yet it is a question whether or not that would be rational and suitable, because practically always the disposition to plethora, as well as leanness, have chronic sickliness as basic factor, which can not be mechanically improved without danger. Excluding dropsical states, which do not belong here, our provings have given us remedies which here are important. Plethoric conditions are indeed as much an important symptom as any other deviation from the normal, and in many cases of remedy selection deserves much more consideration than usually given. The careful prescriber will, in plethoric patients, choose that remedy which also in this respect agrees with the homoeopathic principle. If this plethora is hereditary, which styles it a characteristic sickness symptom, the physicians will consult especially: Aconitum, Ammonium carbolicum, Ammonium muriaticum, Antimonium crudum, Apis, Arnica, Aurum, Belladonna, Bromium, Bryonia, Calcarea carb., Capsicum, Carbo veg., Causticum, Colocynthis, Crocus, Cuprum, Ferrum met., Graphites, Hyoscyamus, Kali carb., Lycopodium, Phosphorus, Rhus, Sarsaparilla, Selenium, Senega, Sepia, Silica, Strontium, Sulphur, Thuja and Valerianum, which are here especially indicated. Among them we will find a remedy which is also suitable for the other symptoms, and is much more sure of a cure than when he only reduces the patient's diet, because he attacks the inner sickness of which the plethora is only a result, and at that not always the worst.

APHORISM 72. It is fatal when in non-intermittent fever the body is cold externally, while the inside burns, and thirst is present.

COMMENT: In such cases these remedies present themselves primarily: Aconitum, Arsenicum, Pulsatilla, Rhus, Sulphur and Veratrum, but also other remedies frequently are indicated according to accompanying symptoms: Belladonna, Bryonia, Calcarea carb., Chamomilla, Sepia and Silica. At any rate the condition is not so hopeless under homoeopathic treatment.

APHORISM 77: Bone necrosis is followed by sequestration of bone.

COMMENT: An allopathic commentator properly indicts his colleagues: "This happy sequestration would happen much oftener, if the condition were not treated with balsamic, irritating salves and injections. The radical treatment of the dyscrasia is fundamental." This is our opinion also, and without a doubt among their applications preparations of iodum are the worst, as many experiences have taught us. Homoeopathy has many illustrious results with: Arsenicum, Asafoetida, Aurum, Calcarea carb., Conium, Hepar, Lachesis, Lycopodium, Mercur., Mezereum, Nitric acid, Phosphoric acid, Pulsatilla, Sepia, Silica, Staphisagria and Sulphur in such conditions, have saved many limbs which had been doomed to amputation.