The Aphorisms of Hippocrates by von Boenninghausen - Book VI

Selected Aphorisms Of Hippocrates
With Comments By Dr. von Boenninghausen

From The Homoeopathic Recorder, Vol. LVIII, No. 10, 11, 12, (April, May, June) 1943.

translated by S.W.S.


APHORISM 1. In cases of chronic lientery it is a favorable symptom when sour eructation occurs, which possibly can also be produced artificially.

COMMENT: Remembering that almost all remedies which are valuable in lientery also have sour eructation, which Hippocrates considers desirable, even when produced artificially, it shows how closely his experience brought him to the knowledge of Homoeopathy. Though this does not rime with his explanation from the theory of his time, it does not discount experience and observation. Had he known our Asarum, Bryonia, China, Ferrum, Phosphorus, and Sulphuric acid he would have used them, and the results would have confirmed his supposition and theory, and proved muriatic acid useless, which is recommended by some physicians, because in muriatic acid we find neither lientery nor sour eructations.

APHORISM 3. Loathing of food during prolonged dysentery is a bad sign, especially if fever Is present.

COMMENT: It is self-evident that the combination of two such critical symptoms spell a bad prognosis, as they indicate deep involvement of the digestive apparatus, and are depleting patient's strength in a short time. Yet in such bad cases our remedies: Antimonium crudum, Arsenicum, China, Nux moschata, Phosphorus, or Pulsatilla can accomplish much when chosen carefully according to the symptom totality. It must be observed that when Hippocrates speaks of dysentery, it is not always what it means to us, but also diarrhea without tenesmus.

APHORISM 4. Shiny smooth ulcers are bad.

COMMENT: The homoeopathic treatment is here also entirely different from that of Allopathy, more adapted to the sickness, because it goes more to the bottom of the trouble by first aiming at improving the body fluids, thus changing the malignant ulcer into a benign condition. In the small, often very painful furuncles we are frequently very successful with Arnica, usually followed by a very small dose of Sulphur to prevent recurrences. Large, often with multiple openings (carbuncles), usually demand: Hepar, Lycopodium, or Nitric acid; burning pains: Arsenicum; dark purple color: Lachesis; scarlet red: Apis or Belladonna; etc. All external applications of medicated salves or plasters are not only entirely superfluous, but may also cover up the external picture which, as mentioned, is so necessary for the choice of the right remedy. Under homoeopathic treatment the-course is always quick and without danger, and one need not fear this trouble, not dangerous in itself but very annoying, might become protracted.

APHORISM 6. Kidney and bladder troubles in old people are difficult of cure.

COMMENT: A main difficulty in this condition is due to the long list of remedies which offer a choice; here are the most prominent, but there are others: Aconitum, Apis, Arnica, Arsenicum, Belladonna, Calcarea carbonica, Camphora, Cantharis, Dulcamara, Ferrum, Helleborus, Hepar, Hyoscyamus, Lycopodium, Mercurius, Nux vomica, Opium, Phosphoric acid, Pulsatilla, Sarsaparilla, Squilla, Silica, Thuja, Valeriana, and Veratrum. Another reason for the difficulty is, that so few accompanying symptoms can be elicited which secure the proper choice. Hence it is and remains a task even for homoeopathic physicians to obtain a cure, especially in old persons, who usually lack patience and endurance.

We cannot close this discussion without calling attention to the danger of holding back urination, either voluntarily or enforced by circumstances. It is hard to understand why so much more attention is paid to regular stools, which is hardly as important as regular urination. Yet, it is certain that constipation, even of several days, in most cases is less dangerous than ischuria, even if only for a few hours, or not to relieve the urging for a still shorter time. The physician who lays sufficient stress on this should include this information in his advice and warning to the laity when giving hygienic instruction.

APHORISM 8. Ulcers in dropsical patients are not easily cured.

COMMENT: This condition is a direct result of low vitality, and dropsy is intimately connected with the same cause. In consequence nature evidently opposes scarifications and tapping of the accumulated water because thus a second evil is added to the first. As soon as a properly chosen remedy overcomes the internal disease, enabling the skin to again take up its natural function, dropsical conditions are cured. External manipulations remove the trouble only temporarily, and reformation occurs.

For such ulcers in dropsical conditions Homoeopathy has some remedies which, properly selected according to concomitant symptoms, are very potent and often astonish in their prompt action. The most prominent are: Arsenicum, Graphites, Helleborus, Lycopodium, Mercurius, Rhus, Squilla, and Sulphur. In edema of the legs with profuse watery discharge from ulcers which do not form pus, no remedy has equaled Rhus toxicodendron given in smallest doses. Often it has in a few days relieved all accompanying symptoms, restored proper skin function, and thus cured the discharge, thereby changed the entire situation so that now Lycopodium could complete the cure. We mention this here because so far this use of the two remedies has not come to the front; however, we wish to say emphatically that they are not indicated in all such conditions, the accompanying symptoms must correspond.

APHORISM 12. Patients cured of chronic hemorrhoids which had been bleeding much, are in danger of dropsy or consumption unless one pile tumor is left to continue bleeding.

COMMENT: We must honestly admit that our intellect is not sufficient to understand how a physician could be able to cure hemorrhoids so that one remains for the purpose of continuing the bleeding. We are moreover of the opinion that such a clever thing was just as difficult in the time of Hippocrates as it is now. In the allopathic materia medica we can find no remedy which could possibly justify such a supposition. But when, as experience teaches, a suppression of a case of chronic hemorrhoidal bleeding is a dangerous thing, which experiment later on brings revenge, and a partial bleeding is impossible, then we cannot see how Allopathy can make use of this aphorism.

In homoeopathic practice it is different. Here such bleeding is evaluated only as a single symptom of the disease picture in the patient, which never alone can be treated or cured, nor is it permissible, as it is only an important part of the totality of symptoms, all of which must correspond to the totality of the remedy picture. Hence, the choice is not limited to just a few medicines which especially meet this condition, like: Ammonium carbonicum, Capsicum, Ferrum metallicum, Kali carbonicum, Phosphorus, Phosphoric acid, Pulsatilla, Sabina, Sepia, or Sulphur; there are at least twice as many which may correspond more to the accompanying symptoms and therefore must be preferred. However, when these last named conditions lead to a correctly and totally suitable homoeopathic remedy, then neither the dangers mentioned in the aphorism, nor any others, need be feared, and the patient will be cured of this, at least troublesome condition (not dangerous in itself), without retaining some bleeding. In our opinion there is an immeasurable difference between curing a single symptom and curing the totality of all symptoms which constitute the disease.

APHORISM 15. In prolonged diarrhoea involuntary vomiting may be curative.

COMMENT: This is only partly correct, but based on experience. If the diarrhoea is due to gastric disturbance or intestinal weakness, it is not infrequent that vomiting, even when artificially induced, becomes curative by bringing more tone and action to the digestive organs. On the other hand there are many forms of chronic diarrhoea which are aggravated by vomiting, which signifies a further spreading of the abdominal disease, which may be too intense to be influenced by vomiting. In this last case vomiting is always a bad sign, and it is high time that remedies like: Antimonium crudum, Antimonium tartaricum, Apis, Argentum nitricum, Arsenicum, Asarum, Borax, Chamomilla, Cuprum, Ipecacuanha, Mercurius, Phosphorus, Senega, Sulphur, Sulphuric acid, or Veratrum be quickly selected according to indications from vomiting, stools, and especially with attention to the so important accompanying symptoms. In these conditions we meet great differences which demand most careful attention, and the exact knowledge regarding the nature of the ejected matter as well as their sequence, help much in the selection of the simillimum. Homoeopathy which here, as in all matters touching the knowledge of her remedies, observes well that which is special, unusual, characteristic, and is a very valuable treasure of authentic experiences; hence homoepathic physicians are not easily tempted to try this or that on good luck, and to change remedies for something else to the detriment of the patient.

APHORISM 20. Unnatural bleeding into the abdominal cavity is followed by suppuration.

COMMENT: It seems that in Hippocrates' time it was not known that through internal medication absorption of blood from cavities is possible, which prevents formation of suppuration. Even now the external treatment of wounds (aiming at absorption of blood) leaves much less to be desired. Thilenius is the only old school man so far, who achieved brilliant results by using only unmixed Arnica, while the others added camphora, sal ammonia, neutral salts, etc., which weakened the Arnica so that results were unsatisfactory. Only when purpura haemorrhagica became better known, the new thought was adopted, admitting that extravasated blood-like matter could be resorbed. Yet many physicians cannot get away from the idea, that external injuries demand external remedies, forgetting that here, as everywhere, the action of vital force alone is curative, and that internal medication can aid nature. External applications have also this disadvantage, that they obscure the external symptoms, which denote changes and progress of healing.

Thanks to the untiring observation and experience of homoeopathic physicians, light was also shed on these secrets of nature, and they have made it possible for most cases to set up the criterions as to which remedies are best suited to certain conditions, and to enhance their number so that they will always be sufficient where help is at all possible. Aside from Arnica and Sulphuric acid, which the old school also knows and used, and which head our list, we have remedies which are frequently indicated, like: Bryonia, Bursa pastoris, Chamomilla, Conium, Dulcamara, Hepar, Hypericum, Lachesis, Nux vomica, Petroleum, Pulsatilla, Rhus, Ruta, Secale and Sulphur. To these may be added for special cases: Belladonna, China, Cicuta, Euphrasia, Ferrum, Iodum, Laurocerasus, Paris quadrifolia, Phosphorus, and Plumbum, and perhaps a few more. In selecting one of these remedies it is understood that, as always, the directions of the homoeopathic law must be observed, and that here also all possible symptoms combine to make the total picture and must be reckoned with. Here belong the causative factors, the part of the body involved, the external appearance of the injured part, the end of sensation and pain, the modalities of aggravation and amelioration of the pain as to time, position and condition, and finally everything along the line of concomitant symptoms that can be found. In such careful and cautious manner the results are not only fully satisfactory, but often above all expectations, especially if the exactly corresponding remedy is given in doses which are just sufficient to stimulate the vital force to proper reaction without being obliged to also battle the medicine disease caused by too low potencies.

APHORISM 21. Varicosities and hemorrhoids supervening in cases of insanity are curative.

COMMENT: We just shall state that lately this aphorism has been confirmed in a few cases, but such happenings are rare, hence they deserve mention. The connection between brain and hemorrhoids and varices we leave to the explanation of pathologists. Yet we again see the relationship between mind and body in health and sickness, that ailment of one can allay the other, and that therefore we can not claim a real cure, for nothing but a changed form has taken place.

It is of much greater importance in the homoeopathic treatment of the insane that we have remedies which have mental symptoms plus varices and hemorrhoids. Here we can mention: Arnica, Arsenicum, Fluoric acid, Lachesis, Lycopodium, and Zincum in the first line, but also: Anacardium, Belladonna, Causticum, Cuprum, Hyoscyamus, Ignatia, Nux vomica, Phosphorus, Sepia, Sulphur, and Veratrum. Therefore, when a patient before his mental aberration suffered form one of the troubles mentioned, but they were in some way suppressed, then such anamnestic symptom wins the greatest importance in the total symptom complex, and it points a priori to one of the above remedies which are of value over others. Of such preliminary symptoms, which disappear, or may have been suppressed, there are many of various kinds, and they deserve the greatest attention in a truly homoeopathic treatment. It is self-evident that it would be criminal madness to again symptomatically, separately try to overcome them. Much more often than from varices, such mental pathology occurs from suppression of skin diseases, and what we just said is even more important under such conditions because they are by far more dangerous.

APHORISM 26. Tremors occurring in ardent fevers are relieved when delirium takes place.

COMMENT: To this unimportant aphorism we wish to state briefly that we have various remedies which have both delirium and tremors in severe fevers: Aconitum, Apis, Arsenicum, Belladonna, Bryonia, Calcarea carbonica, China, Hyoscyamus, Ignatia, Natrum muriaticum, Opium, Platina, Pulsatilla, Rhus, Sabadilla, Sambucus, Stramonium, Sulphur, and Veratrum. We therefore are not forced to play the part of an idle observer in such often dangerous conditions, and to leave nature take her uncertain course without directing her support.

APHORISM 27. When an empyema or ascites is treated by knife or cautery, if the fluid be totally removed in one sitting, the result is fatal.

COMMENT: Experience has often verified this aphorism, and one is surprised that so many old school physicians neglect to pay attention to this warning of their patriarch. If an internal suppuration is present, it must, of course, be drained. But that does not cure the condition of which pus formation is only a symptom, and its emptying leaves an enfeebled condition which favors the further spread of the real sickness totality. Just as little can the mechanical drainage of water be considered a real cure of dropsy, but only a doubtful palliative for a short time, followed usually by exhaustion. Homoeopathy employs such means seldom and only in dire necessity, and shuns excess for fear of inducing the danger mentioned, and because of the absolute conviction that only the well selected homoeopathic remedy can bring about a real cure. For the same reason we avoid all the other palliatives with which, especially in dropsies, such damage has been done, for if they cause symptomatically increased flow of urine in their primary action, which is worse, they leave the real disease unaffected. These palliative medicines often used by old school physicians, which in the primary action produce increased flow of urine, but have decreased flow in the secondary action, are, according to our remedy proving in the healthy, as well in ascites as in anasarca: Antimonium crudum, Baryta, Belladonna, Chelidonium. Colocynthis, Guaiacum, Juniperus, Kali carb., Mercurius, ;Natrum muriaticum, Phosphoric acid, Sabina, Sambucus, Squilla, Senega, and Sulphur. Increase in urine as secondary action we find in: Colchicum, Digitalis, Helleborus, and Veratrum. Allopathy does neither know nor use our grand remedies indicated here: Apis, Arsenicum, Bryonia, China, Dulcamara, Ledum, Lycopodium, Phosphorus, Pulsatilla, Rhus, Sepia, and Strontium. They shun them because in the large doses they employ, the primary action is diminished urine, and only for the cure of dropsy they possess by being real polychrests, and through their extensive and manifold power they correspond to most of the diseases accompanying in various forms dropsical conditions, and they yield total and lasting cures in so many cases.

APHORISM 33. Patients with sour eructations seldom do get pleurisy.

COMMENT: This aphorism also belongs to those about which not much can be said because if founds only on one isolated observation, and it is difficult to show immediate connection. But it is strange that just this sour eructation is totally absent in the remedy which is usually thought of first in pleurisy: Aconitum, which has small empty or perhaps foul eructations, but never sour, more ineffectual or incomplete eructations. But this eructation is the more vigorous after Aconitum has overcome the inflammation and the rest of the sickness has been cured by Bryonia, Kali carb., or Phosphorus, which have this sour eructation in a high degree. This remark illustrates clearly that the pathological symptoms of our present remedy proving on the healthy correspond to the experiences which Hippocrates collected 2000 years ago. While such symptom combinations, as we admit, do not serve to prove the inner truth of Homoeopathy, which is based on much more solid ground, yet they show a remarkable corroboration to our theoretic opponents.

APHORISM 34. Bald people are not subject to large varicose veins, but if they get them, their hair will grow again.

COMMENT: From the days of Galenus till now this aphorism has been doubted, but the second proposition suggests that Hippocrates speaks from real experience. Though we do not consider his explanations of much weight, yet we value his veracity and sharp observations. For us homoeopathists this aphorism has a special interest when we realize that both troubles are found in the symptomatology of many of our remedies, but that one of the other is especially prominent like: Ambra, Graphites, Lycopodium, Natrum muriaticum, Silica, Sulphur, and Zincum. But is it in the power of any physician to produce varices in order to cure baldheadedness?

APHORISM 35. Cough in dropsical patients is a bad symptom.

COMMENT: This unfavorable symptom is caused when the dropsy also affects the chest, which certainly increases the danger. If a quick selection of a suitable remedy (Ammonium carbonicum, Apis, Arsenicum, Colchicum, Helleborus, and Nitric acid) does not influence the general condition favorably, then the patient usually is hopelessly lost.

APHORISM 37. It is beneficial when a swelling on the external throat occurs in cases of angina, for then the sickness gets into the open.

COMMENT: According to Valesius and Faesius, Hippocrates here refers to any kind of internal throat disease with difficult breathing. Those are not only the simple anginas, but also the angina gangrenosa,** the angina membranacea and the angina partides (mumps); only the angina pectoris must be excepted. Of these the first two are the most dangerous, and it seems that Hippocrates has meant these especially, since in mumps the swelling is present from the start.
As to the homoeopathic treatment of the true angina membranacea, it belongs undoubtedly to those where the result is fully satisfactory if the physician, patient and environment will do their share. The physician must give the remedy in such high potency that the curative action can quickly develop, and no second dose should be given till improvement stops. These remedies are well known from Hahnemann to every homoeopathic physician, and the reason why I do not mention them here is to prevent that insufficiently instructed persons might administer them wrongly and in low potency, as is now done by many; then they will not give the sure results of the correct remedy in highest potency, and we do not wish to endanger the lives of the children in such a critical period. Only this much we will add, that through timely and correct employment of those remedies, all the others also recommended (Antimonium tartaricum, Apis, Bromium, Bryonia, Chamomilla, Cuprum, Drosera, Iodum, Ipecacuanha, Lachesis, Phosphorus, Sambucus, and Senega) never are suitable in the beginning, but may be indicated in some neglected cases.

**Whether or not the lately (allegedly from America) imported murderous throat disease, which has been named "angina diphterica", is here included, we do not know, because it has not yet invaded our district, and the description has not yet been fully reported. But from what little we have learned about it, Phosphorus suggests itself for the height of the disease on account of the apathetic somnolent, associated symptoms, and especially on account of the red, velvet-like spots found under the white coverings when these latter are removed. In the first stage Apis is reported to have brought quick aid.

APHORISM 38. It is better not to treat hidden cancers; such patients die sooner when treated, but live longer untreated.

COMMENT: If we may suppose that Hippocrates refers to scirrhous carcinoma and by treating meant cutting or burning, then we must admit he was right, and that Homoeopathy is absolutely on his side. At the same time it must be conceded that a real cure of mammary cancer, especially in the open stage, is extremely difficult and success is not always obtained. Apis, Belladonna, Bryonia, Cargo animalis, Chamomilla, Clematis, Conium, Graphites, Pulsatilla, Rhus, Sabina, Silica, or Sulphur, properly selected, will cure most scirrhous conditions. But in open cancers these remedies must be consulted: Apis, Arsenicum, Belladonna, Chamomilla, Conium, Hepar, Kreosotum, Lachesis, Phosphorus, Phosphoric acid, Rhus, Silica, Sulphur, or Thuja. Yet all cancer cases demand the most painstaking and circumspect attention of the physician with scrupulous observation of the directions on the part of the patient. It must not be supposed that these remedy lists are complete, for here, as always, the genius of the remedy must correspond completely to that of the symptom totality, expressed through the characteristic symptoms. We have, e.g., cured a mammary scirrhus in a lady of 37 (sister-in-law of a very prominent old school physician, and her sister died from the same condition under allopathic treatment the early symptoms were the same in both sisters) in six weeks with three doses of Sepia 200 (on account of vomiting one dose of Pulsatilla was interposed) . To this day, after seven years, the lady is still in the best of health. None of the above named remedies was indicated.

Here is the reason for must unsuccessful homoeopathic treatments: that especially the neophytes (converted allopathic physicians) slavishly cling to the published cures by certain remedies for certain disease forms, instead of studying the remedy provings according to our homoeopathic tenets.

APHORISM 42. In jaundice liver sclerosis is bad.

COMMENT: It is well known that a hardened liver, often associated with jaundice, especially a scirrhous liver is dangerous, and difficult to cure. Here we have again the condition that we possess not a paucity, but an abundance of possibly indicated remedies, which makes the proper choice difficult. The following remedies have been used successfully: Arnica, Arsenicum, Aurum, Belladonna, Bromium, Bryonia, Calcarea carb., Cannabis, Carbo vegetabilis and animalis, China, Conium, Ferrum met., Graphites, Iodum, Kali carb., Laurocerasus, Lycopodium, Magnesia carb., Magnesia mur., Mezereum, Mercurius, Nux, Sepia, Silicea, Sulphur, and Taraxacum. To these must probably be added: Agnus castus, Ammonium, Chamomilla, Clematis, Fluoric acid, Phosphorus, and Plumbum. It is easily understood that with this large number of widely differing remedies, also the sickness (with the prominent symptoms of liver hardening and jaundice) must differ in anamnestic and attending symptoms as to time, conditions, etc. And yet, the exact similarity between these and the remedy symptoms point to the correct simillimum, stripped of actually unimportant, indifferent matters.

We cannot close this account without calling attention to the abuse of iodum preparations for external applications in all these conditions. The worst about it is, that iodum is of such intensive and obstinate action, that it is extremely difficult to find an antidote with which to overcome the damage done. Aside from Hepar and Arsenicum we have seen the best results from Iodum in the highest potency repeated in smallest doses dissolved in water shaking the bottle forcibly each time a dose is taken, which increases the dynamization. Experience teaches that continuing the same remedy in the same potency is not well tolerated.

APHORISM 43. If persons with enlarged spleen are attacked by prolonged dysentery, dropsy or lientery supervenes with fatal result.

COMMENT: Every chronic diarrhea means a chronically diseased intestinal tract and in such dangerous conditions we must first think of Anacardium, Asafoetida, Bryonia, China, Dulcamara, Ignatia, Pulsatilla, Rhus, or Sulphuric acid.

APHORISM 44. Those who after strangury are attacked by ileus, die in seven days, unless fever supervenes and there is an abundant flow of urine.

COMMENT: An attack of ileus is generally fatal unless the causative, crampy intestinal condition can be overcome. Arsenicum, Belladonna, Chamomilla, Cocculus, Colocynthis, Lycopodium, Nitric acid, Nux, Platina, Rhus, Silica, Sulphur, Thuja, Veratrum, and Zincum have been of great aid in this fortunately not frequently occurring disease, when properly, i. e., homoeopathically selected.

The kind reader, we hope, will pardon us when in this connection we speak of ourselves.‹It was in the latter part of March 1833 when we had an attack of ileus, [This was probably an attack of appendicitis, which was unknown in the days of von Boenninghausen .‹ S.W.S.] situated in the right lower abdomen, lasting two weeks. Four homoeopathic colleagues (among them Dr. Aegedi, physician in ordinary to Princess Friedrich of Dusseldorf) hastened to help me. Only during the fourteenth terrible night were we fortunate in finding the right remedy, which had never before been used in this ailment: Thuja. It was selected because of the unusual symptom: only the uncovered parts of the body perspired very much, while the covered parts were dry. A single globule of Thuja 30 relieved the pain in five minutes; in ten minutes a copious stool occurred, followed by a refreshing sleep from which we awakened the next morning as if new born. In a few days we reported this to our beloved Hahnemann, and from his letter of six pages I quote these words (as if divinely inspired): "Shall I now give you an advice for the proper restoration of intestinal action, then I call your attention to Conium and Lycopodium in addition to daily strolls. Splendid that you give full credit to our so useful Thuja through your example." And how wonderfully this advice corresponded with our already followed prescription before we received that letter; for, two days after we sent Hahnemann our report, changed symptoms made it necessary to take Conium and later Lycopodium, which removed every vestige of our trouble.

APHORISM 45. If ulcers last for a year or longer, it must be that the bones come away, and the scars are deep.

COMMENT: It is evident that this aphorism is clouded in too general a form, and that the condition mentioned is usually found only in such ulcers which started in the periosteum, or later attacked it and the bone substance itself. Such ulcers, especially of long standing and maltreated by external means like plasters, salves, etc., are often difficult to cure except by internal remedies for which purpose we have: Asafoetida, Mercurius, Phosphoric acid, and Silica, chosen according to sensation and conditions. Pus in these cases is always foetid. This bone disease usually happens in scrofulous patients or after abuse of quicksilver, and such cases frequently do not come under homoeopathic care till after surgical means have made the situation worse, and destruction is extensive. But nothing prevents a thorough cure like abuse of iodum, plumbum, and zinc, which are rarely indicated and always have baneful effect, yet are extensively used by allopaths.

APHORISM 46. Those who become hump-backed before puberty from asthma or cough die from it.

COMMENT: If one does not lay stress on the mentioned causative factors of hump-back, then many instances in aged patients with this deformity seem to contradict this aphorism. If the kyphosis is the result of asthma or cough as here urged, then the seed of the sickness which threatens life was previously in the chest, and the kyphosis only one symptom of it, not even an essential one, although it Is testimony of the degree of such sickness. Hence, in all such cases not even the orthopedic means can give much result unless they are able to conquer the original chest trouble. To this end, as upon overcoming all other coexisting symptoms which are always of the nature of chronic diseases Homoeopathy is valuable in the treatment of the deformity, and can boast of thousands of cases where the desired result was obtained, especially where the patient was still young and growing. To this purpose we have a large number of remedies which correspond to the totality of the patient's symptoms and to his individuality. We mention only: Aconitum, Antimonium crudum, Asafoetida, Aurum, Baryta carb., Belladonna, Bryonia, Calcarea carb., Causticum, Cicuta virosa, Clematis, Colocynthis, Dulcamara, Hepar, Ipecacuanha, Lachesis, Lycopodium, Mercurius, Mezereum, Phosphorus, Phosphoric acid, Plumbum, Pulsatilla, Rhus, Ruta, Sabina, Sepia, Silica, Staphisagria, Sulphur, and Thuja, which, however, does not end the useful list. Of course, one cannot just grab one of them, and after a few days' disappointed expectation immediately grab another. No, as stated so many times, only a remedy which is homoeopathically indicated in all directions can produce results; but when carefully chosen, and given in suitably high potency and small dose, and given the necessary time to unfold its action, then frequently results are produced which surpass all expectations. We were fortunate four years ago in curing a kyphosis with respiratory difficulty in a girl of eight, of weak constitution, very pale face, etc., by giving a single dose of Silica 200. The result was so total, that the formerly miserable child is now normal and healthy without any further medication. Of course, such really surprising results are infrequent, the total recovery often difficult, and in adults usually impossible.

APHORISM 49. Gouty affections (podagra), after inflammation subsides, terminate within forty days.

COMMENT: Physicians in our time have rarely opportunity to observe such cases because in their true form are seldom met. A few such cases which we treated have taught us that under homoeopathic care they are cured much easier and quicker than under allopathic medication, as recorded in many of our older medical treatises. Our patients were freed from their pains by: Arnica and Sabina, one by Causticum; Sulphur prevented recurrences as proved by two cases after four and six years. But, as stated, this sickness is so seldom seen, that much experience cannot be gathered, and we have not had opportunity to use the other remedies indicated in this trouble, which mainly are: Aconitum, Ammonium crud., Arsenicum, Asafoetida, Bryonia, Carbo veg., Conium, Graphites, Guaiacum, Ledum, Nux, Phosphoric acid, Sepia, Silica, Taraxacum, Thuja, and Veratrum. What Hippocrates states regarding the forty days' siege of podagra, which in the previous century was so dreaded, most likely refers to cases left to themselves, which were neither shortened by proper medication, nor prolonged by improper treatment.

APHORISM 51. Healthy persons suddenly attacked by pain in head, loss of speech and stertorous breathing die within seven days unless fever sets in.

COMMENT: For apoplexy Homoeopathy usually prescribes Aconitum in the beginning when the pulse is hard and fast, Opium has the slow and full pulse, Lachesis presents the weak but fast pulse. Aside from these remedies we also have: Belladonna, Camphora, Cocculus, Coffea, Hyoscyamus, Ipecacuanha, Lycopodium, Pulsatilla, Sepia, Silica, Stramonium, and Thuja, to be selected according to anamnestic and associated symptoms. But the true homoeopathist has no favorite remedies, neither here nor in any other condition; he always selects those remedies which correspond most to the characteristic symptoms.

In this connection we cannot abstain from reporting a cure which converted an old allopathic physician to Homoeopathy. Drs. Fuisting and Lutterbeck (the latter physician in ordinary to Prince Blucher) usually spent their Saturday evenings with us to talk about Homoeopathy. On one such evening our cook suffered an apoplectic stroke. The elder allopath insisted upon doing a phlebotomy quickly, but we prevented it and gave the here indicated Aconitum, a small dose. In a short time patient regained consciousness, but was totally paralyzed on the entire left side. My assertion that this paralysis would soon be overcome if no phlebotomy were done was doubted by Dr. L. Meanwhile, the patient was placed in bed and received a small dose of Cocculus. At seven the next morning Dr. L. called to see the result, and was astonished when the patient answered the door bell. During the night the paralysis had disappeared, and patient was feeling as well as even Dr. L. became a zealous and true homoeopathist.

APHORISM 52. One must also consider what can be seen of the eye in sleep; if with closed lids a part of the white is visible it is, should diarrhea or purging not be responsible, a bad, if not an absolutely fatal, symptom.

COMMENT: Remedies presenting this symptom are: Antimonium tart., Arnica, Belladonna, Bryonia, Capsicum, Colocynthis, Ferrum met., Helleborus, Ignatia, Ipecacuanha, Laurocerasus, Opium, Phosphoric acid, Sambucus, Stramonium, Sulphur, Thuja, Veratrum, and Zincum. But of these only Belladonna, Ipecacuanha, Opium, Stramonium, and Thuja correspond to apoplexy. The experienced physician knows that this symptom is also met in other conditions, e.g., worms in children, in certain attacks of hysteria, etc., that even apparently healthy persons sleep with half open eyes. The physician will not lay much weight on this symptom; yet, only experience teaches which symptom must be considered in selecting the indicated remedy.

APHORISM 53. Delirium with laughter is less dangerous than if the patient IS very serious.

COMMENT: Aside from the risus sardonicus, which hardly belongs here, we find in a number of dangerous diseases delirium and mental aberrations with laughing, which points to: Apis, Belladonna, Cuprum, Hyoscyamus, Stramonium, or Veratrum, and in this symptom they are a very important indication of the one or the other of these remedies. We believe that in this aphorism Hippocrates referred to hysterical convulsions with laughing. These find their medicine according to accompanying symptoms in: Alumina, Ammonium mur., Antimonium tart., Apis, Arnica, Aurum, Belladonna, Calcarea carb., Cannabis, Carbo animalis, Cocculus, Conium, Crocus, Cuprum, Hyoscyamus, Ignatia, Lycopodium, Natrum carb., Natrum mur., Nux moschata, Phosphorus, Platina, Secale, Selenium, Silicea, Stramonium, Sulphur, Valeriana, Zincum, and a few others which are not often indicated. Such conditions are, however, not dangerous.

APHORISM 54. In acute affections with fever, sighing respiration is a bad sign.

COMMENT: Also this aphorism cannot be considered as generally accepted, for the sighing respiration is often found in patients who are not dangerously ill. This is easily seen by a homoeopathist when he looks at the remedies which have this symptom in their proving. Here belong: Aconitum, Antimonium crudum, Argentum nitricum, Arsenicum, Belladonna, Bryonia, Caladium, Capsicum, Chamomilla, China, Cina, Cocculus, Cuprum, Euphorbium, Graphites, Ignatia, Ipecacuanha, Kali carbonicum, Lachesis, Laurocerasus, Mercurius, Muriatic acid, Nux, Opium, Pulsatilla, Ranunculus sceleratus, Secale, Selenium, Silica, Squilla, and Stramonium. Even though several of these are indicated in serious conditions, that is not the case in all, and it would be incorrect to make an unfavorable prognosis for that reason. Moreover, this symptom is so unimportant that the experienced homoeopathist seldom gives it much weight.

In this connection we think we are permitted to emphasize that a complete knowledge of their proving in the healthy enables a homoeopathist to truly evaluate such a single phenomenon and symptom in the sick. Some single symptoms however are important both for prognosis and remedy selection. In other instances, if not in most, this applies less to the single symptom as to its connection with others. Therefore, Homoeopathy, in this regard, has the advantage here over Allopathy, which in its generalizing tendency regards more the generality, and misses the indications taken from the totality. Any unprejudiced physician will therefore consider it justified that we lay so much stress upon the peculiar actions of our remedies, which are unchangeable, and which we evaluate much higher than all pathologic and therapeutic theories which change so often, and which have not caused much progress in the cure of sickness from that of the previous century. The constantly changing treatment, e.g., of cholera, typhoid conditions, dysentery, and croup, etc., show no pleasing results nor certainty!

APHORISM 57. Apoplexy occurs chiefly between the ages of forty and Sixty.

COMMENT: In addition to the Aphorism 42 of Book II we have the following remedies: Antimonium crudum, Antimonium tart., Arsenicum, Aurum, Belladonna, Calcarea carb., Coffea, Ferrum met, Hyoscyamus, Ipecacuanha, Nux vom., Phosphoric acid, Pulsatilla, Rhus, Sambucus, Sepia, Stramonium, Thuja, and Veratrum.

APHORISM 58. If the omentum protrudes, it must surely become gangrenous and suppurate.

COMMENT: Hippocrates here evidently refers to epiploceles, which are more difficult of reposition than intestinal herniae, and which become gangrenous more quickly than entero-epiploceles.

Homoeopathy cures all kinds of hernia like any other disease by internal use of remedies indicated by the symptom totality, and in only a few cases does taxis become necessary, made superfluous by proper recumbent position of the body. We have for this condition a large number of remedies, and it is practically impossible not to find among them the simillimum for the essential symptoms of the patient. The most frequently indicated hernia remedies are: Aconitum, Alumina, Asarum, Aurum, Belladonna, Bryonia, Calcarea carb., Capsicum, Chamomilla, Cocculus, Colocynthis, Guaiacum, Lachesis, Lycopodium, Magnesia carbonica, Nitric acid, Nux vomica, Opium, Phosphorus, Plumbum, Pulsatilla, Rhus, Sepia, Silica, Staphisagria, Sulphur, Sulphuric acid, Thuja, Veratrum, and Zincum. Of these the choice of remedy for incarcerated hernia fluctuates between: Aconitum, Alumina, Aurum, Belladonna, Calcarea carb., Capsicum, Chamomilla, Colocynthis, Lachesis, Lycopodium, Nitric acid, Nux, Opium, Plumbum, Silica, Sulphur, Sulphuric acid, or Veratrum. The decision for the one or the other depends partly on the location of the hernia, but much more on the sensations, the external appearance, the most important are the associated symptoms. A hernia is not an isolated local disease, or at least not for long, but almost always, often severely, involves the entire organism; the nature and therapeutic indications are soon clearly discernible. It is self-evident that we do not favor operation when we are called early enough, and if gangrene and suppuration have set in, we can only reluctantly consent to operative means. If however allopathic treatment has preceded the debacle, double action is imperative, and whenever possible it is best to refuse taking the case. This last advice is especially aimed at the younger homoeopathists who have not yet an established reputation, for it is in this late stage of the disease the often unavoidable death of the patient will be laid to the physician's door and to Homoeopathy.

APHORISM 60. In cases of chronic hip-joint disease with protruding head of the femur, the leg wastes and the patient becomes lame, unless the part be cauterized.

COMMENT: The recommended cauterization is also today the allopathic treatment of coxalgia, if not the alpha, at least the omega, and it cannot be denied that in this frequently seen malady, as in so many other conditions allopathic treatment leaves much to be desired. If the case is of long duration, then even the homoeopathic cure is difficult and uncertain, when "everything has been done", including the use of the moxa, and adhesions have formed; but it is easily accomplished and certain in the beginning, and it if has not yet been treated, neither by internal nor external means. In such cases there are many remedies at our disposal, and according to conditions the following may be indicated: Aconitum, Ambra, Apis, Argentum, Arnica, Arsenicum, Asafoetida, Aurum, Belladonna, Bryonia, Calcarea card., Cantharis, Causticum, Chamomilla, Colocynthis, Digitalis, Drosera, Graphites, Hepar, Kreosotum, Phosphorus, Pulsatilla, Rhus, Ruta, Sabina, Sepia, Silica, Staphisagria, Sulphur, Thuja, and Zincum.
The kind of pain, the modalities as to time, position and condition make the remedy choice easier. In addition to this, another factor helps out: In the often occurring shortening of the leg, we are reminded of: Ambra, Colocynthis, Mezereum, Oleander, Phosphorus, and Sepia, and where the leg has lengthened our choice is among: Colocynthis, Kreosotum, Rhus, and Sulphur, provided the other accompanying symptoms do not form a contraindication. At any rate it is self-evident that the symptom totality is the deciding factor.
We have stated that the cure of old and allopathically treated coxalgias is difficult and uncertain, but we must add that these obstacles do not make a cure impossible, no, it is sometimes even quickly accomplished. In our journal we have several such cases, of which we shall only relate the following, because it created a sensation: Anna, three years old, had suffered from this trouble for six weeks. The left hip was enormously swollen, hard and painful, the skin showed large blue blood vessels, the leg three inches elongated; constant hectic cough, continual diarrhea worse at night; emaciation to a skeleton, etc., a picture of most abject misery. Since many external and internal remedies had been tried, the moxa was now to be used, even though the attending physicians were in doubt whether or not the weakened child could stand that operation. Therefore this was an exquisite case as a trial of the much ridiculed young homoeopathic science. Of the treatment we shall just mention that Sulphur cent. 60 was first given, followed by two doses of Aconitum, two of Rhus, and two of Colocynthis with surprising results; later two doses of Sulphur again were given, and one of Mercurius, all in the 30th cent. potency. The result? In seven weeks the little patient could be dismissed completely cured. We have later often seen her as a blooming girl, totally free of the least reminder of her previous suffering. It is perhaps superfluous to mention that also in this apparently external disease absolutely no external means were applied.